A Naval Timeline (1861-65)
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SOME SIGNIFICANT EVENTS OF 1861
Fort Sumter fired on by Confederate batteries -- the conflict begins.
President Lincoln issued proclamation declaring blockade of Southern ports from South Carolina to Texas.
Norfolk Navy Yard partially destroyed to prevent Yard facilities from falling into Confederate hands and abandoned by Union forces.
Commander S. C. Rowan, U.S.S Pawnee, demanded the surrender of Alexandria, Virginia.
John LaMountain made first ascent in a balloon to observe Confederate batteries on Sewell's Point, Virginia.
Union forces under Flag Officer S. H. Stringham and General B. F. Butler received the unconditional surrender of Confederate-held Forts Hatteras and Clark, closing Pamlico Sound.
Confederate naval forces, including CSS Curlew, Raleigh, and Junaluska, captured steamer Fanny (later CSS Fanny) in Pamlico Sound with Union troops on board.
Naval forces under Flag Officer S. F. Du Pont captured Port Royal Sound. U S S Tyler, Commander H. Walke, and USS Lexington, Commander R. Stembel, supported 3,000 Union troops under General Grant at the Battle of Belmont, Missouri. and engaged Confederate batteries along the Mississippi River
USS San Jacinto, Captain C. Wilkes, stopped British mail steamer Trent in Old Bahama Channel and removed Confederate Commissioners James Mason and John Slidell.
Thaddeus Lowe made balloon observation of Confederate forces from Balloon-Boat G. W. Parke Curtis anchored in Potomac River.
Fingal (later CSS Atlanta), purchased in England, entered Savannah laden with military supplies -- the first ship to run the blockade solely on Confederate government account.
Congress enacted legislation providing for the Medal of Honor.
SOME SIGNIFICANT EVENTS OF 1862
Flag Officer D. G. Farragut was appointed to command the Western Gulf Blockading Squadron -- the beginning of the New Orleans campaign.
Seven armored river gunboats were commissioned.
Naval forces captured strategic Fort Henry on the Tennessee River.
Joint amphibious expedition captured Roanoke Island.
Gunboats under attacked Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River.
Forces took Fernandina, Florida, and the surrounding area in joint operations against the South Atlantic coast.
Ironclad ram CSS Virginia, Captain F. Buchanan, destroyed wooden blockading ships USS Cumberland and Congress in Hampton Roads.
USS Monitor,engaged CSS Virginia, in the historic first battle of ironclads.
Joint amphibious assault captured New Bern, North Carolina.
CSS Nashville, ran the blockade out of Beaufort, North Carolina.
USS Carondelet, avoided Confederate batteries on Island No. 10 to support Major General J. Pope's assault on the island.
Island No. 10, vital to the Confederate defense of the upper Mississippi, surrendered to the naval forces of Flag Officer A. H. Foote.
Flag Officer D. G. Farragut's fleet ran past Forts Jackson and St. Philip, destroyed the defending Confederate flotilla below New Orleans.
Confederates destroyed the Norfolk and Pensacola Navy Yards.
CSS Virginia was blown up by her crew off Craney Island to prevent her capture by advancing Union forces.
The James River Flotilla advanced unsupported to within eight miles of Richmond before being turned back.
Gunboats destroyed the upper Mississippi portion of the Confederate River Defense Fleet at the Battle of Memphis.
Flag Officer D. G. Farragut's fleet successfully passed the heavy Vicksburg batteries.
Flag Officer L. M. Goldsborough's fleet covered the withdrawal of Major General G. B. McClellan's army after the battle of Malvern Hill.
CSS Arkansas, Lieutenant I. N. Brown, engaged and ran through the Union fleet above Vicksburg.
David Glasgow Farragut promoted to Rear Admiral, the first officer to hold that rank in the history of the U.S. Navy.
Commander R. Semmes assumed command of celebrated raider CSS Alabama.
Franklin Buchanan promoted to Admiral, ranking officer in the Confederate Navy.
USS Kensington and Rachel Seaman and mortar schooner Henry James bombarded Sabine City, Texas, and forced Confederate troops to withdraw from the city.
The Western Gunboat Fleet was transferred from the War Department to the Navy.
During October the Confederate Torpedo Bureau was established under Lieutenant H. Davidson, continuing work pioneered by Commander M. F. Maury.
CSS Cotton and shore batteries engaged Union squadron at Berwick Bay, Louisiana. The squadron suffered considerable damage before the gallant Confederate gunboat expended all its ammunition and was compelled to withdraw.
USS Cairo, Lieutenant Commander T. O. Selfridge, was sunk in the Yazoo River, the first ship to be destroyed by a Confederate torpedo.31 December USS Monitor, Commander J. P. Bankhead, foundered and was lost at sea off Cape Hatteras.
SOME SIGNIFICANT EVENTS OF 1863
CSS Bayou City and Neptune engaged the Union fleet at Galveston, forcing the North's withdrawal from that foothold on the Texas coast.
Gunboats with troops embarked,compelled the surrender of Fort Hindman (Arkansas Post) on the Arkansas River.
CSS Alabama, Captain R. Semmes, engaged and sank USS Hatteras off Galveston.
Joint Army-Navy forces attacked Confederate positions at Bayou Teche, Louisiana.
CSS Josiah Bell and Uncle Ben captured USS Morning Light and Velocity, temporarily lifting the blockade of Sabine Pass, Texas.
USS Commodore Perry and Army troops severed Confederate supply lines to Richmond via the Perquimans River.
CSS Palmetto State and Chicora attacked the blockading fleet off Charleston.
USS Queen of the West grounded in the Black River and was abandoned under heavy fire.
CSS William H. Webb and Queen of the West engaged and sank ram USS Indianola below Warrenton, Mississippi.
USS Montauk, Wissahickon, Seneca, and Dawn shelled and destroyed blockade runner Rattlesnake (formerly CSSNashville) under the guns of Fort McAllister, Georgia.
Ships of the Yazoo Pass Expedition, begun in February with the objective of cutting off Vicksburg in the rear, but had to retire without achieving its purpose.
Rear Admiral D. G. Farragut passed the heavy batteries at Port Hudson with USS Hartford and Albatross to establish an effective blockade of the Red River supply lines.
Confederate troops opened a sustained attack on Union forces at Washington, North Carolina.
Rear Admiral S. F. Du Pont's ironclad squadron engaged strong Confederate forts in Charleston harbor in an attempt to penetrate the defenses and capture the city.
Gunboats under Rear Admiral D. D. Porter escorting Army transports successfully passed the Vicksburg batteries.
Rear Admiral Porter's force and troops under Major General U. S. Grant forced the evacuation of Grand Gulf.
CSS Atlanta, with two wooden steamers in company, engaged USS Weehawken and Nahant in Wassaw Sound, Georgia.
Vicksburg surrendered after a lengthy bombardment and siege by Union naval and land forces.
Port Hudson, Louisiana, surrendered after prolonged attack by Northern sea and land forces.
Rear Admiral J. A. Dahlgren's ironclads renewed the bombardment of Charleston defenses, opening on Fort Wagner, Morris Island.
Yazoo City, Mississippi, was captured by a joint Army-Navy expedition.
Rear Admiral D. D. Porter relieved Rear Admiral D. G. Farragut of command of the lower half of the Mississippi and assumed command of the River from New Orleans to the headwaters.
USS Commodore Barney was severely damaged by Confederate electric torpedo in the James River above Dutch Gap, Virginia.
Confederate submarine H. L. Hunley, Lieutenant J. A. Payne, CSN, sank for the first time in Charleston harbor after making practice dives preparatory to attacking the blockading fleet.
Morris Island, Charleston harbor, was evacuated by Confederate forces after nearly 2 months of intensive bombardment from afloat and ashore.
CSS Uncle Ben and shore batteries turned back a Union expedition to take Sabine Pass, Texas. USS Clifton and Sachem were disabled and surrendered.
CSS David, Lieutenant W. T. Glassell, exploded a spar torpedo against USS New Ironsides in an attempt to destroy the heavy blockader off Charleston. New Ironsides was damaged but not destroyed.
Submarine H. L. Hunley sank for the second time in Charleston harbor. The part owner for whom she was named and a crew of seven perished in the accident, but she was again recovered and a third crew volunteered to man her.
During October, instruction began for 52 midshipmen at the Confederate States Naval Academy on board CSS Patrick Henry in the James River.
Naval forces convoyed and supported Army troops at Brazos Santiago, Texas, where the Union secured a valuable position on the Mexican border. As a result of this operation, Brownsville, Texas, was also evacuated.
Steamer Chesapeake en route Portland, Maine, was seized off Cape Cod by Confederates disguised as passengers and carried to Nova Scotia.
SOME SIGNIFICANT EVENTS OF 1864
Confederate boat expedition captured and destroyed USS Underwriter in the Neuse River, North Carolina.
Confederate submarine H. L. Hunley sank Union blockader Housatonic off Charleston -- the first submarine to sink a ship in combat.
Ships of Rear Admiral D. D. Porter's Mississippi Squadron moved up the Red River to commence the unsuccessful Army-Navy campaign to gain a foothold in the Texas interior.
CSS Albemarle, Commander J. W. Cooke, sank USS Southfield and forced the remainder of the Union squadron at Plymouth, North Carolina, to withdraw.
USS Sassacus, Wyalusing, and Mattabesett engaged CSS Albemarle off the mouth of the Roanoke River as the Union sought in vain to regain control near Plymouth.
Confederate torpedo destroyed USS Commodore Jones in the James River, Virginia.
The last of Rear Admiral Porter's squadron, dashed through the hurriedly constructed Red River dams to safety below the Alexandria rapids.
USS Kearsarge, Commander J. A. Winslow, sank CSS Alabama, Captain R. Semmes, off Cherbourg, France, ending the career of the South's most famous commerce raider.
Rear Admiral D. G. Farragut's fleet steamed by Forts Morgan and Gaines in the fierce engagement with the forts and Admiral F. Buchanan's small squadron.
CSS Tallahassee, Commander J. T. Wood, put to sea from Wilmington, launching a brief but highly successful cruise against Northern shipping.
Fort Morgan, the last of the three forts at Mobile Bay to remain in Confederate hands, surrendered.
USS Wachusett, Lieutenant N. Collins, captured CSS Florida.
CSS Shenandoah, Lieutenant J. I. Waddell, commissioned off the Madeira Islands.
Torpedo launch commanded by Lieutenant W. B. Cushing destroyed ram CSS Albemarle in the Roanoke River.
Confederate raiders captured small gunboats USS Key West, Tawah, and Elfin near Johnsonville on the Tennessee River.
Rear Admiral Farragut arrived in New York City, and was acclaimed as a conquering hero. Ten days later he was promoted to the newly established rank of Vice Admiral.
Flag Officer W. W. Hunter destroyed the last of the Confederate Savannah Squadron.
A joint Army-Navy operation under Rear Admiral Porter and Major General B. F. Butler unsuccessfully attempted to take the stronghold of Fort Fisher.
SOME SIGNIFICANT EVENTS OF 1865
The joint amphibious assault under Rear Admiral David D. Porter took Fort Fisher.
The Confederate fleet attempted to dash down the James River to attack General Grant's headquarters at City Point, Virginia.
Charleston, confronted by General William T. Sherman's soldiers was evacuated.
CSS Shenandoah, Lieutenant James I. Waddell, departed Melbourne to resume her commerce raiding career in the Pacific.
Wilmington, North Carolina, was evacuated as Rear Admiral Porter's ships steamed up the Cape Fear River and General Terry's soldiers marched on the city.
CSS Stonewall, Captain Thomas J. Page, put to sea from Ferrol, Spain, en route to Havana.
Rear Admiral Porter joined Generals Grant and Sherman for a conference with President Lincoln on board steamer River Queen at City Point, Virginia.
CSA Secretary of the Navy Stephen R. Mallory ordered the destruction of the Confederate James River Squadron and directed its officers and men to join General Lee's troops.
Midshipmen at the Confederate Naval Academy, under the command of Lieutenant William H. Parker, escorted the archives of the government and bullion of the treasury from Richmond to Danville and southward.
Rear Admiral Porter accompanied President Lincoln up the James River to Richmond on board flagship Malvern.
General Lee met General Grant at Appomattox Courthouse and formally surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia.
Batteries Tracy and Huger, fell to Union forces and Confederate troops evacuated Mobile, which was surrendered by the mayor.
President Lincoln was shot shortly after 10 p.m. while watching ";Our American Cousin" at Ford's Theatre, Washington.
CSS Webb, Lieutenant Read, entered the Mississippi in an effort to escape to sea.
The body of John Wilkes Booth, President Lincoln's assassin, was delivered on board USS Montauk.
CSA Secretary of the Navy Mallory submitted his resignation to President Davis at Washington, Georgia.
President Jefferson Davis was captured by Union troops near Irwinville, Georgia.
CSS Stonewall, Captain T. J. Page, was turned over to Cuban officials at Havana.
Terms of surrender of Galveston were signed on board USS Fort Jackson by Major General E. Kirby Smith on behalf of the Confederacy.
Rear Admiral Louis M. Goldsborough arrived at Flushing, in the Netherlands, where he hoisted his flag on USS Colorado and assumed command of the reinstated European Squadron. The East India Squadon was reactivated on 31 July.
Lieutenant Waddell, CSS Shenandoah, spoke the English bark Barracouta and for the first time learned positively that the war was over.
Brazil Squadron reactivated under Rear Admiral Godon in flagship Susquehanna.
Emperor Maximilian approved the "Regulations and Instructions" prepared by Matthew Fontaine Maury to encourage emigration of Southerners to Mexico.
Secretary Welles ordered all naval vessels to resume rendering honors when entering British ports and to begin again exchanging official courtesies with English men of war.
CSS Shenandoah, Lieutenant Waddell, arrived at Liverpool, England, 123 days and 23,000 miles from the Aleutians. Waddell lowered the last official Confederate flag, and his ship was ultimately turned over to American authorities.
Secretary Welles announced that the West India Squadron was to be re-established under Commodore James S. Palmer, in that.
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